Arch Hand Microsurg 2018; 23(2): 78-86  
Medial Instability of the Elbow
Hyoung Seok Jung1, Min Jong Park2
1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chung-Ang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Min Jong Park
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Korea
TEL: +82-2-3410-3506, FAX: +82-2-3410-0061, E-mail:
Received: May 11, 2018; Revised: May 15, 2018; Accepted: May 15, 2018; Published online: June 1, 2018.
© Korean Society for Surgery of the Hand, Korean Society for Microsurgery, and Korean Society for Surgery of the Peripheral Nerve. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Medial elbow instability has been a debilitating problem for the athlete performing overhead throwing and the increase in the number of participants in throwing sports has brought increase in its incidence in non-athletes. Instability can occur as a result of a single traumatic event, but, in most cases, it develops as a result of repetitive micro-trauma over a long period of time. During the overhead throwing, tensile force is applied to the medial stabilizing structures and compressive force is applied to the lateral structures. Common injuries encountered in the throwing elbow include medial collateral ligament tear, ulnar nerve neuropathy, flexor-pronator tendinitis or tear and valgus extension overload syndrome. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow joint, along with an understanding of throwing mechanism, is necessary to properly diagnose and treat the throwing athlete. The purpose of this article is to review the functional anatomy of medial elbow stabilizing structure, pathophysiology of medial elbow instability and its diagnostic method and treatment option including reconstruction of medial collateral ligament.
Keywords: Medial elbow instability, Medial collateral ligament, Ulnar nerve

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