Arch Hand Microsurg 2018; 23(1): 1-11  
Wide-Awake Hand Surgery
Sang-Woo Kang1, Young-Woo Kim2, Ji-Kang Park1
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea
2Department of Hand and Micro Reconstructive Surgery, Institute for Hand and Reconstructive Microsurgery, W Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Correspondence to: Ji-Kang Park
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chungbuk National University Hospital, 776 1sunhwan-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju 28644, Korea
TEL: +82-43-269-6077, FAX: +82-43-274-8719, E-mail:
Received: February 19, 2018; Revised: February 22, 2018; Accepted: February 23, 2018; Published online: March 1, 2018.
© Korean Society for Surgery of the Hand, Korean Society for Microsurgery, and Korean Society for Surgery of the Peripheral Nerve. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Wide-awake hand surgery is a surgical procedure that does not use a tourniquet and sedation through lidocaine and epinephrine injections and does not perform regional anesthesia or general anesthesia. Therefore, systemic risk by general anesthesia can be avoided, and more accurate surgeries can be performed through active joint motion during surgery without discomfort due to tourniquet used during local anesthesia. Also, the time and cost associated with anesthesia can be reduced and the hospital day can be reduced by performing the day surgery. The authors will introduce the concept of the wide-awake hand surgery and discuss the indications, drug usage, and injection methods.
Keywords: Anesthesia, Local, Lidocaine, Epinephrine, Tourniquet

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